Check Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus for all Subjects 2022

If you are looking for a class 12t syllabus, then you have landed on the right page. Here you will get a complete list of all the subjects and syllabus of the Tamil Nadu HSC syllabus for class 12th. Generally, the first preference of class 10th students while choosing their stream is commerce mainly because many of the students feel they have an immense opportunity in this stream and wide career options after 12th.  But for science and arts streams also there are wide career opportunities. It totally depends on students what subject they prefer after class 10th. Students who opt for commerce stream generally choose CA as a career option. The subjects which you get to study helps you in the preparation of the CA entrance exam also i.e., preparation of CA Foundation. You can be a CA Foundation topper and make your parents dream come true through the systematic guidance and result-oriented approach of VSI.

So in this article, you will find TN board class 12th commerce subjects, science subjects, and arts subjects syllabus. In this pandemic situation of COVID-19, VSI helps students to know how to prepare for the CA foundation during the lockdown. It is even possible that students can complete their CA course in just four months.

VSI Jaipur helps you to know about all the latest news and updates regarding the Tamil Nadu board 2022. To get all the latest news updates regarding the Tamil Nadu board class 12th syllabus 2022 bookmark the VSI Jaipur page.

Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – Important Details

Here are some of the important details regarding the Tamil Nadu Class 12th board every student must know who is appearing for TN board class 12th exam 2022.

Board NameTamil Nadu Directorate of Government Examination
Class NameHSC/ 12TH Class/ +2


Name of the examPublic Exam
CategoryBoard Syllabus
LocationTamil Nadu

Latest: Tamil Nadu class 12th results get declared on 1 June 2021*. Students can check their results at TN class 12th result.

TN State Board 12th Syllabus 2022

Tamil Nadu State Board Directors conduct the public examinations for the students every year. Tamil Nadu Directorate of Government, every year makes updates in the TN HSC syllabus for students who are appearing for the class 12th exam. Students appearing for TN HSC class 12th exam 2022 must be updated with the new Tamil Nadu HSC syllabus for the year. Students appearing for the exam should check the TN HSC exam pattern 2022. This will help students to know the question pattern of the exam and will help them prepare well for their TN HSC class 12th exam 2022. Candidates appearing for the TN board class 12th exam must go through each and every topic of the syllabus.

Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – English

The syllabus for English is the same for all three streams. Students appearing for TN HSC class 12th exam 2022, have to go through each and every topic given in the syllabus. 

Vocabulary competenciesMeaning, syllabification, spellings, word formation, vocabulary improvement, phrasal verbs, and idioms, foreign words, and phrases.
Grammatical competenciesSentence patterns., conditional and concessional clauses, modal auxiliaries, reported speech, relative clauses, the transformation of sentences, passivization.
Listening CompetenciesComprehension passage containing six-eight lines, short passages, ease of breath, CNN news panel discussion, coherence.
Reading competencesDescriptive, argumentative, factual, and literary texts.
Writing competenciesScientific and factual discourse, interesting texts, reports, relevant situations, non-verbal information, projects, advertisements, et cetera.
Study skillsDictionaries, library facilities, internet, verbal and non-verbal texts, lectures, books and journals, essays of students, email language.
OccupationalReport writing, presenting messages, picture composition, presenting facts and figures in a systematic method, advertisements, and more.
Strategic competenciesSamples of pupil language, areas of doubt, hesitation, and more.
Creative competenciesEssay writing, poem writing, critical appraisal, scriptwriting for interviews, cartoon scripts, travelogues, captions for photographs, translation.
Speaking competenciesIntroduction to topics through group discussions, greeting, introduction, and giving information, disagreeing peacefully, projecting one’s image, expressing gratitude, welcome address, vote of thanks, and more.

Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – Mathematics

Mathematics is a practical based subject. The syllabus for maths is the same for both science and commerce stream Students appearing for TN HSC class 12th exam 2022 should practise maths very well, then only students can achieve good marks in their examination. Every topic mentioned in TN Board class 12th syllabus 2022 is mandatory for students to study. 

Systems  of equationsSystems of linear equations, methods of solution
Application of matricesMatrices for transformations: Matrices for Translation, Reflection, Rotation, Glide reflection, Shear and Stretch, Isometry and similarity matrices for the same.
Analytical geometryDefinition of a conic, Derivation of the standard equation of Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola and Rectangular Hyperbola, Chords, Tangents & Normals, and more.
Vector algebraVectors and Scalars Representations of vectors and operations of addition and subtraction, Scalar and vector products, Triple products, products 4 vectors, and more.
Application of differentiationDerivative as a rate measurer, Derivative as a measure of slope, Mean Value Theorems, Curve tracing, et cetera.
Application of integrationDefinite integral and its applications
Differential equations Formation of differential equations, I order and II Order Linear Equations, Applications.
Probability distributionRandom variable, probability functions, mathematical expectation, discrete and continuous distribution.
Complex numberComplex Algebra Fundamental operations on complex numbers, Applications.
Algebraic structuresRings. Integral Domains and Fields, Group Structure.

Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – Physics

Students appearing for TN Board class 12th exam 2022 should go through the syllabus very minutely. Physics is a subject in which students must devote their time to studying. 

Current electricityElectric Current, drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistivity, superconductivity, Combination of resistors, Electric power and more.
Effects of electric currentHealing effect, Joule’s law, magnetic effect of electric current, Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, Conversion to ammeter and voltmeter, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, and more.
Electromagnetic induction and alternating currentElectromagnetic induction, Alternating current, Eddy current, AC generator, methods of inducing emf, self-induction.
Electromagnetic waves and wave opticsElectromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Emission and Absorption spectrum, Theories of light, Wavefront and Huygens principle, etc.
Atomic physicsAtomic structure, Bohr’s model, Sommerfield’s atom model, Quantum numbers, x -rays production properties, detection, absorption, diffraction of x – rays, and more.
Dual nature of radiation and matterThe photo-electric effect, Photocells and their application, Matter waves, electron microscope.
Nuclear physicsNuclear properties, Nuclear mass defect, Nature of Nuclear forces, Neutron discovery, Radioactivity, Nuclear fission.
RelativityConcept of space, time and mass, Frame of reference, Newtonian relativity, Special theory of relativity, Doppler effect of light,
Semiconductor devices and their applicationsSemiconductor theory, Semiconductor doping, Formation of P-N Junction, Diode as a rectifier, Junction – transistors, Measuring Instruments, and more.
Communication systemsModes of propagation ground wave, Amplitude modulation, Antennas, and Transmission lines, TV.Transmission and reception, Video signal analysis, and more.

Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – Chemistry

Chemistry is categorised in 3 sections. Students appearing for TN HSC class 12th exam 2022 should prepare for chemistry subjects very well. Students should learn all the chemical reactions, learn all the laws, practical numerical questions, solve derivatives and do chemical experiments to understand the chemical phenomenon. Every topic in the TN class 12th syllabus 2022 is mandatory for students to study.

Inorganic chemistryAtomic Structure II, Periodic Table, Coordination compounds & bio coordination compounds, Nuclear Chemistry, etc.
Physical chemistrySolid State, Thermodynamics, Chemical Equilibrium, Chemical Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, Electro Chemistry, Electro Chemistry II, etc.
Organic chemistryIsomerism in Organic Chemistry, Hydroxy derivatives, Ethers, Carbonyl Compounds, Carboxylic acid, Organic Nitrogen Compounds, Biomolecules, Chemistry in Action, Problems in Chemistry.


Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – Biology

Biology consists of two Subjects: Botany and Zoology. Both the subjects of Biology are theory based. Students should make important notes which will help them at the time of revision. Students should also focus on terminologies, as it is very important in biology. Students are also advised to practice diagrams so that they understand the concept very well. Every topic in the TN class 12th syllabus 2022 is mandatory for students to study. 

  • Bio- Botany

Reproduction in plants
  1. Asexual Reproduction – Introduction; Asexual reproduction – Modes;
  1. Vegetative propagation; Sexual
  2. Reproduction – Stages of Sexual Reproduction; Pre-fertilization
  1. Fertilization – Events of fertilization; Formation of pollen tube;
  2. Types of pollen tube entry – histology of style –transmission tissue; Syngamy; Triple fusion & Double Fertilization
  1. Post-Fertilization Changes – Zygote formation &
  2. Development of fruit; Endosperm and types;
  3. Embryogenesis – development of dicot embryo; Seed (monocot vs dicot); Transformation of parts of a flower
  4. Special modes of Reproduction – Apomixis, Types of apomixis; Polyembryony, Types (Simple and Adventive & True and False ) Causes; Parthenocarpy, Types and Applications & significance
Genetics and molecular biology
  1. Heredity and Variation – Heredity And Variation and A recent finding in genetics; Mendelian Inheritance –Laws;
  2. Monohybrid, Dihybrid, Test cross, Trihybrid cross, Back cross & Test cross; Incomplete Dominance –Lethal Genes,
  3. Interaction Of Genes- Intragenic & Intergenic; Polygenic Inheritance In Wheat(Kernel Colour) Pleiotropy-Pisum Sativum
  4. Chromosomal basis of Inheritance – Chromosomal Theory Of Inheritance;
  5. Comparison between gene and chromosomal behavior; Linkage And Crossing Over Eye color in Drosophila, Maize multiple allelism;
  6. Recombination; Sex Determination In Plants Sphaerocarpos, Papaya, Maize; Mutation, types and Mutagenic agents, Significance of mutation;
  7. Gene Mapping
  8. Molecular Biology – Introduction to Molecular Biology;Central Dogma; Transcription; Regulation of Gene


Plant biotechnology
  1. Principles Of Biotechnology – Introduction to biotechnology;
  2. Historical perspective; Milestones –including fermentation, SCP, PTC, protoplast fusion, genome sequencing, evolutionary pattern (relationship between various plant species), plant genome projects, RNA i- Genome editing – CRISPR CAS -9;
  3. Principles :Genetic Engineering (rDNA technology); Tools : Restriction endonuclease; DNA ligase and alkaline phosphatase; Vectors: Properties of vectors, Plasmid – PBR 322, Cosmid, Bacteriophage vector, Phagemid, BAC,YAC, Transposon as vector, Shuttle vector Recombinant DNA Technology – Introduction to recombination; Steps involved in RDT; Methods of genetransfer; Direct – electroporation, gene gun, liposome-mediated; Indirect – Agrobacterium-mediated genetransfer – Ti plasmid;
  4. Screening for recombinants
  5. Insertional inactivation-blue – white colony selection;
  6. Antibiotic-resistant markers; Replica plating technique;
  7. Molecular techniques – isolation of genetic material andgel electrophoresis; Southern blotting; northern blotting;PCR, western blotting, ELISA; Bioassay for target gene effect
  8. Transgenic plants (GM crops) – Herbicide tolerant-
  9. Glyphosate,Basta; Insect resistance – Bt crops(cotton)Bt cotton, Bt Brinjal, DMH;
  10. Virus resistance; FlavrSavr tomato;
  11. Golden rice – bio fortification ; PHB – PLA; Green
  12. Fluorescent Protein(GFP), Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) in Transgenic Arabidopsis
  13. Other applications – Biopharming – plant as bioreactors;
  14. Bioprospecting, biopiracy (neem/turmeric);
  15. Bioremediation; Biofuel, algal biofuel; Interdisciplinary fields of biotechnology;
  16. IPR & patent
  17. Biosafety and Bioethics – ethical legal social issues (ELSI)–genetic engineering appraisal committee (GEAC)
  18. Plant Tissue Culture – Introduction about plant tissue culture and explaining terminologies like totipotency,differentiation, redifferentiation and dedifferentiation;
  19. Basic technique involved in PTC; Media preparation; MS medium; Types of culture – callus, embryo, protoplast culture (hybrid and cybrid),
  20. cell suspension culture –production of secondary metabolites; Plant regeneration pathway;
  21. Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis;
  22. Applications; Micro-propagation (banana) – Artificial seed,
  23. Virus free plants; Germplasm conservation –
  24. Cryopreservation (-196C)
Plant ecology 
  1. Principles of Ecology – Introduction – Autecology, Synecology, Habitat and Ecological niche, Ecological equivalents, Biotic and Abiotic factors – responses of plants to temperature, water, light and soil, Topography, definition of stenothermal, stenohaline, eurythermal, euryhaline plants with one example in each;
  2. Ecological adaptations – hydrophytes, mesophytes, xerophytes and halophytes and epiphytes in term of morphological, physiological and behavioural response;
  3. Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation,parasitism, commensalism and amensalism with plant examples, Plant Animal Interaction-Herbivory, Pollination, seed dispersal –Co-evolution Ecosystem – Definition, types, structure (Pond ecosystem), brief outline about biotic and abiotic components of ecosystem, Major Ecosystem of India andWorld, ecosystem functions – Productivity (GPP & NPP), secondary productivity; Decomposition – fragmentation,leaching, catabolism, humification, mineralization, factors affecting rate of decomposition; Types of food chain & Food web (grazing, detritus food, trophic level ecological pyramids – energy numbers, biomass);
  4. Definition of PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) – Energy flow – Laws of Thermodynamics, 10% law for transfer of energy from one trophic level to next- standing crop, standing state of ecosystem; Nutrient cycle – definition, biogeochemical cycle (carbon and phosphorouscycles only) – graphical representation of the above cycles;
  5. Succession – definition, kinds of succession, hydrosere, lithosere, xerosere, primary & secondary with example; Definition of pioneer community and climax community;
  6. Significance of ecological successionEnvironmental issues – Alien Invasive species – Impacts –(example -Kappaphycus, Eichhornia, Lantana, Parthenium, Prosopis etc.,);
  7. agrochemicals and theireffects; greenhouse effect and global warming, climatechange, ozone depletion, Impact on food crops ,CCS – carbon – accumulation, trading, sequestration, Carbon footprint/Ecological footprint – deforestation –causes and effects , Afforestation , any one case study as success story addressing environmental issues;
  8. Drone technologyto study vegetation and pest attacks; Forestry – Agro forestry – Social forestry – Community forestry – Conservation movements (CHIPKO & APIKO );
  9. Rainwater harvesting – swachh Bharath, Important Lakes in TN (Madurantakam, Chembarabakkam, Sholavaram )- Philosophy, construction- Ecological importance; Sewage disposal – Solid and liquid waste management
Economic botany
  1. Traditional Knowledge of plants – Relationship between Humans and plants;
  2. Traditional system of medicines- Siddha and Ayurveda andFolk. Plant breeding – Strategies for enhancement of food production; Conventional methods -Plant breeding, Selection, Hybridization, Heterosis, Mutation, polyploidy, Green revolution; Modern methods – GM crops –definition and example, Improved varieties of commonly used plants (Rice, Wheat, Pulses,etc….)
  • Bio- Zoology

  1. REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS – Reproduction – characteristic features of all organisms, continuation of species – Modes of reproduction: Asexual and sexual – Modes of asexual reproduction: Binary and multiple fission – Sporulation – Budding – Gemmule –Fragmentation – Regeneration – Modes of sexual reproduction: External and internal fertilization -Oviparous, Ovoviviparous and Viviparous – examples HUMAN REPRODUCTION – Human reproductive system Male and Female reproductive system – Gametogenesis – Spermatogenesis and oogenesis – Structure of Spermatozoa and ovum Fertilization and Implantation – Menstrual Cycle-Menstrual Hygiene – Napkins, Tampons – Cervical Cancer – Maintenance of Pregnancy – Pregnancy and Embryonic Development – Parturition and lactation – Hormones in parturition – lactation – Colostrum REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH – The strategies to be implemented to attain total reproductive health – Statutory ban on gender Detection in Pregnancy – Amniocentesis, Ultra sound Scan,- Population explosion and birth control – Control Measures- Statutory rising of marriageable age – small families and family planning programme – Contraceptive methods – Natural barriers – Social Impact of Sex Ratio, Feticide and Infanticide – IUDs -Copper IUDs- Cu-7, CuT 380A, Multiload 375 and Hormonal releasing IUDs- Progestasert, LNG 20) – Oral Pills -Female contraceptive injections – Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA), norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), combined progestin and estrogen monthly injections – Implants and surgical methods – Medical Termination of Pregnancy – The medical necessity and social consequences of MTP – Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) – The major STDs and its symptoms- AIDS – Hepatitis, Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Genital Herpes, Genital warts, Trichomoniasis, Chlamydiasis. – Mode of Transmission – Preventive measures – Infertility – Methods used to assist infertile couple to have children– IVF-ET, ZIFT, GIFT, IUT, AI, ICSI – Surrogacy
Genetics and evolutionPRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION – Multiple alleles – Human Blood Groups – ABO Blood groups inheritance – Genetic control of Rh factor – Erythroblastosis foetalis – Sex determination – Autosome, Allosome – Sex determination in Humans – Sex Linked Inheritance – Barr bodies{x-inactivation} – X-linked inheritance – Haemophilia – Colour blindness – Y-linked- Hypertrichosis – Karyotyping – Pedigree analysis – Mendelian Disorders – Chromosomal abnormalities – Down’s syndrome – Klinefelter’s Syndrome – Turner’s Syndrome MOLECULAR GENETICS – Nucleic Acids – DNA – Structure of Polynucleotide chain – Packing of DNA Helix – The search for genetic material – DNA is a genetic material – Hershey and Chase Experiment – Properties of Genetic materials – RNA world – Types of RNA – Role of RNA – Replication – Enzymes for DNA replication – Mechanism of Replication – experimental proof of DNA replication(Meselson and Stahl’s Experiment) – Transcription – Transcription unit – Transcription unit and gene – Process of Transcription – Genetic code – Salient features of Genetic code -Mutation and Genetic code – Translation – tRNA-The adapter molecule – Mechanism of Translation – Regulation of Gene expression – -Lac operon – Human Genome project – – Goal of HGP – Salient feature of HGP – Applications and future challenges – Blotting techniques – Southern blotting – Northern Blotting – Western Blotting – Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) – DNA finger printing technique EVOLUTION – Origin of life – Evolution of life form- A Theory – Theory of Spontaneous generation – Big bang theory – Theory of Biogenesis – Evidences for evolution – (Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology, molecular evidences) – Evolution by anthropogenic action by natural/Artificial Selection: Examples. Adaptive radiation – Darwin’s finches – Australian marsupials – Theories of Evolution: Lamarck’s theory, Darwin’s theory – Mechanism of evolution – Hardy Weinberg principle – Geological time scale – Origin and evolution of man
Biology and human welfare
  1. HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES – Common diseases in man: Infectious and non infectious diseases – Common diseases in Man-typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, ringworm infection – Diseases caused by protozoans- malaria, amoebiasis – Diseases caused by helminths- Ascariasis, filariasis. – Maintenance of personal and public hygiene. Immunity – Basic concepts of immunology- Innate immunity. Acquired immunity, – primary and secondary immune response;
  2. cells of the immune system – Structure of antibody – Active and passive immunity– vaccination and Immunisation – Allergies -; Lymphoid organs in the body – Autoimmunity- Autoimmune disease Cancer and AIDS;
  3. Adolescence and Drug / Alcohol abuse –Addiction and Dependence- Effects of drug-Drug / Alcohol abuse-Prevention and Control- Alcohol abuse- Depression – Mental Health
Animal biotechnology and its applicationPrinciples of Biotechnology – applications in Medicine – Human insulin – Human growth hormones – Human blood clotting factors in treating haemophilia – Interferons –Vaccines – Gene therapy – Molecular diagnosis – ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immune- Sorbent Assay) – PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction ) – Stem Cell therapy – Bone Marrow Therapy Stem Cell Banks – Animal cloning: Dolly – Transgenic Animals & Biological products (Rosie- cow) and their uses – Ethical issues
Ecology, environment and conservationORGANISM AND POPULATION – Concept of Ecology – Environment – habitat & Niche – Concept of Biome & distribution – Major abiotic factors, water, light, temperature & soil – Responses to abiotic factors – Population and ecological Adaptations – Interactions – Commensalism mutualism, competition, predation & parasitism – Population attributes – growth, birth rate & death rate, age distribution – Population growth curve population regulations BIODIVERSITY AND ITS CONSERVATION – Biodiversity – concepts of biodiversity – levels of Biodiversity – Patterns of Biodiversity – Biogeographical regions of India – Biotic provinces of Tamil Nadu – Importance of biodiversity – global /India – Loss of biodiversity – Threats to biodiversity – Biodiversity conservation(Insitu, Ex Situ conservation) – IUCN – Hotspots / Endangered organisms – extinction, red data book – Causes of biodiversity losses ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES – Air pollution and its control – Water pollution and its control – Noise pollution – Agrochemicals and their effects – biomagnifications – Eutrophication – Organic farming & its implementation – Solid waste management / radioactive waste management – greenhouse effect & global warming – ozone depletion – deforestation – E- waste – Remedy of plastic waste – Eco- San toilets – People’s participation in conservation of forest.

Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – Accountancy

Account is a subject which is mainly based on practical questions. But students also need to learn the theory in Accountancy. Accountancy needs regular practice then only students are able to attempt questions in the exam. All the topics mentioned in the Tamil Nadu class 12th Syllabus 2022 are mandatory. 

Accounts from incomplete records- I
  1. Meaning and Definition;
  2. Features and limitations; Differences between incomplete records and double entry system;
  3. Statement of Affairs Method: Steps to be followed;
  4. Distinction between Statement of affairs and Balance Sheet;
  5. Conversion method: Steps to be followed; Statement of affairs method; Conversion method
Accounts of non profit organisations
  1. Introduction;
  2. Receipts and Payments Account: Meaning, Format;
  3. Income and Expenditure Account: Meaning, Format;
  4. Distinction between Receipts and Payments A/c and Income and Expenditure A/c;
  5. Balance Sheet;
  6. Items peculiar to non-profit organisations which require special treatment
Partnership accounts- basic concepts
  1. Partnership: Meaning and Features;
  2. Features of Limited Liability Partnership;
  3. Partnership deed;Relevant provisions of Indian Partnership Act 1932 inthe absence of partnership deed;
  4. Types of Partners;Fixed/fluctuating capital accounts;
  5. Interest oncapital and Interest on drawings;
  6. Salary andcommission; Division of profits among partners; Profitand loss appropriation account
Treatment of goodwill in partnership accounts
  1. Goodwill: Meaning and nature;
  2. Methods of valuationof Goodwill;
  3. Average profit method; Super profitmethod;
  4. Capitalisation method;
  5. Need for valuation ofgoodwill in partnership
Partnership- admission
  1. Introduction;
  2. Sacrificing ratio and new profit sharing ratio;
  3. Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities;
  4. Adjustment for Goodwill; Accounting treatment ofreserves and accumulated profits;
  5. Revaluationaccount, capital account and Balance Sheetof a new firm
Partnership accounts- retirements
  1. Meaning and reasons for retirement;
  2. Gaining ratioand new profit sharing ratio;
  3. Revaluation of Assetsand Liabilities; Adjustment for Goodwill;
  4. Accountingtreatment of distribution of reserves and accumulatedprofits;
  5. Revaluation account, capital account andBalance Sheet after retirement
Partnership accounts- death of a partner
  1. Meaning; New profit sharing ratio and gaining ratio;
  2. Revaluation of Assets and liabilities; Adjustment for
  3. goodwill; Distribution of accumulated profits and losses;
  4. Amount due to deceased partner’s executor;
  5. Settlement of amount due
Company accounts- I
  1. Company: Definition and characteristics;
  2. Characteristics of a Company; Different types of shares and share capital; Accounting treatment forissue of shares at par, Premium and discount; Oversubscription and under subscription of shares; Forfeitures and reissue of shares
Financial statement analysis- IFinancial Statements: Meaning and Features; Significance & Limitations; Format of company finalaccounts as perCompanies Act, 2013; Tools offinancial statement analysis: Common sizestatement, Comparative statement, Trend Analysis,Funds Flow statement, Cash Flow Statement
Financial statement analysis- IICommon size Financial Statements; Comparative Financial Statements; Trend Analysis
Financial statement analysis- III
  1. Accounting Ratios: Meaning and Definition;
  2. Objectives and importance; Advantages andlimitations;
  3. Classification of Ratios on the basis offinancial statements and functions;
  4. Computation of ratios
Computer application in accounting- I
  1. Application of computerized accounting system;
  2. Automating the accounting system; Designing the accounting reports;
  3. Data exchange with other information system
Computer application in accounting- IIApplication of Computerised account system- “Tally with GST package”; Practical on Application ofaccounting software- Creation of Company, Accountsgroup, etc. and generation of reports

Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – Business Studies

Business studies is a theory-based subject. In this subject, you will learn how the business runs, how partnership firm forms, the insight of an organization, and many more. Students are advised to make notes and do maximum revision. All the topics in the class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC syllabus are mandatory to study. 

OrganizationMeaning and Types of Organization
Sole traderMeaning of sole trader, Special features of a sole trader, Merits of a sole trader, Demerits of a sole trader.
partnershipDefinition of partnership, Special features of partnership, Similarities between sole trader and partnership, Merits and Demerits of Partnership, Types of Partnership, Kinds of Partners, Rights and Duties of partners, Partner’s express and Implied authority, Partnership Deed, Dissolution of partnership, and more.
Companies I and IIDefinitions, Differences between partnership and company, Kinds of companies, public company, private company, Privileges of a private company, Differences between private company and public company, Formation of a company, Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Prospectus, Shares, Allotment of shares, DebenturesTypes, Differences between Shares and Debentures.
Stock exchangeIntroduction, Procedures regarding new Issues, Stock Exchange, Investors and speculatorsDifferences, SEBI, Mutual funds, Bombay Online Trading (BOLT).
Co-operativesDefinition, Merits, and Demerits, Types of Cooperatives, Differences between companies and cooperatives.
Government in businessIntroduction, Types, Public Corporation, Government Companies, Differences between the private sector and the public sector.

Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – Economics

It is very important for class 12th students to study economics. This will help students to know the economy of India as well as Tamil Nadu very well. Students appearing for Tamil Nadu class 12th exam 2022 should understand the concepts of market, demand and supply, how money supplies in the economy, different government policies, and many more. 

Economic growth and economic developmentMeaning and Differences between Growth andDevelopment; Conceptualization of Economic Growth;Characteristics of Developing and Developed Economy;Leibenstein’s model of Economic Characteristics ofDeveloping Countries; Indian Models of EconomicsDevelopment – V.K.R.V. Rao; B.R. Ambedkar; C.N. Vakil;A.K. Sen; M.K. Gandhi
Population  and human resource developmentMalthusian devil of Population; Demographic dividend;Present Status of Population Growth – Census of India; SexRatio; Literacy Rate; Drop outs – Primary & Upper Primary;Life Expectancy; Standard of Living; Infant Mortality Rate;Child Mortality; Maternal Mortality Rate; Crude BirthRate/Crude Death Rate; Neonatal Mortality and PostnatalMortality; Meaning and Development of Human Resource;Source of Human Capital – Universalization of Education ,Provision of Health Care, Social Infrastructure (Housing,Electricity, LPG, Drinking water and Toilets),Vocationalization of Education; Higher Education :University Grants Commission (UGC), National Council ofEducational Research and Training (NCERT), State Councilof Educational Research and Training (SCERT), Directorateof Technical Education (DTE), Directorate of CollegiateEducation (DCE), Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), All India Council for TechnicalEducation (AICTE), National Council for Teacher Education(NCTE), National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT);Medical Council of India (MCI)
Poverty and unemploymentMeaning, Types of Poverty and Unemployment; Causes ofPoverty and Unemployment; Various programmes forGeneration of Employment and Alleviation of Poverty;Critical assessment of Poverty estimates; State initiativesfor poverty reduction For example, AmmaUnavagam
National incomeMeaning and Definitions of National Income; GrossDomestic Product (GDP); Net Domestic Product (NDP);Gross National Product (GNP); Net National Product (NNP);Per capita Income; Personal Income; Disposable Income;Features of National Income; Circular flow of NationalIncome; Method of measuring National Income : Outputmethod; Income method; Expenditure method; Difficultiesin the measurement of National Income : Transferpayments; Income of foreign firms; Unpaid services; Incomefrom illegal activities; Treatment of Government sector;Production of self-consumption; Changing price level;Practical difficulties of counting National Income : Doublecounting; Existence of non-monetized sector; Lack ofoccupational specialization; Inadequate and unreliabledata; Capital gains or losses; Depreciation; Valuation ofinventories; Illiteracy and ignorance; Sectoral contributionto National Income : Primary Sector; Secondary Sector;Tertiary Sector
Theories of distributionMarginal Productivity Theory of Distribution; Theories ofRent (Ricardian, Modern & Quasi-rent); Theories of Wages(Marginal Productivity Theory) Market, Bargaining, Wageand Residual Claimant theory) ; Theories of Interest(Classical, Neo-classical and Keynesian); Theories of Profit(Walker, MPT, Wage, Dynamic, Innovation, Risk-bearingand Uncertainty
Theories of employmentClassical Theory of Employment; Full Employment; Say’sLaw of Market; Aggregate Demand Function, AggregateSupply Function; MPC and MPS, APC and APS concepts;Effective Demand; Keynesian Psychological Law ofConsumption; Keynesian Notion of Under Employment;Multiplier and Accelerator – Super; Multiplier; InvestmentFunction; IS – LM Function; Classicism versus;Keynesianism; Phillips Curve; Lorenz Curve
International tradeMeaning and Significance; Why to Trade?; EconomicReforms -1991 : Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization;Trade Policy Developments : General Agreement on Trade &Tariff (GATT) & General agreement on Trade in Services(GATS), World Trade Organization (WTO), Tariff ReformPrograms; Indian Economy During Reforms: AnAssessment : Growth and Employment, Reforms inAgriculture, Reforms in Industry, Disinvestment, Reformsand Fiscal Policies; Balance of Payments and InvestmentPolicy : Balance of Trade, Exchange Rate Determinations –Clean float Dirty float, Foreign Exchange Management Act(FEMA), Foreign Exchange Reserves, Tariff and Non-tariffbarriers
Monetary and fiscal policies
  • Meaning and Definitions of Money; Kinds of Money;
  • Functions of Money;
  • Demand for Money;
  • Supply of Money;
  • Black Money and Demonetization ;
  • Money Markets & Capital Markets :Treasury Bill Markets, Call MoneyMarkets, Mutual Funds, Stock Exchange (NSE, BSE andCSE), Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI);
  • Banks and Credit Instruments;
  • Monetary Tools : BankRate, Open Market Operations, Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR),Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR), Repo Rate and ReverseRepo Rate, Selective Credit Control Measures, Cheapmoney policy and Dear money policy; Digital Transactions;Fiscal Policy : Meaning and Objectives, Budget:Components of Budget : Revenue Budget, Capital Budget,Budget Receipts; Revenue Receipts : Revenue Deficits,Capital Deficits, Fiscal Deficits and Budget Deficit, TaxRevenue : Direct Tax, Indirect Tax, Goods and Services Tax(GST); Non-Tax Revenue : Interest and dividend oninvestments, Fees, License Fee, Fines and penalties,Escheats; Capital Receipts : Borrowings, Recovery of loans,Other Receipts;
  • Budget Expenditure : RevenueExpenditure, Capital Expenditure; Types of GovernmentBudget : Balanced Budget, Surplus Budget, Deficit Budget; Macroeconomic Policy : Meaning and Types of Inflation,Anti-inflationary measures, Deflation, Stagflation; MacroGoals: Full employment, Price Stability, Exchange rateStability, Balanced Economic Growth, Growth with socialJustice, Inclusive Growth
Tamil nadu economy and resource managementProfiles of Resources : Land, Forests, Labour : Organized,Un-organized; Capital : Physical capital, Financial capital,Social capital, Foreign capital, Human capital; Organization: Public sector, Private sector, Public sector Disinvestment,Equity versus Efficiency; Disaster Management : Tsunami,Earthquake, Flood & Fire, Drought, Famine, Cyclone;Information Management : Information of competitiveexaminations, Awareness of TNPSC/UPSC and otherCompetitive examinations; Transparency and GoodGovernance : Economics of Corruption, Transparency inNatural Resource Utilization
Environmental and sustainable development with special reference in Tamil Nadu
  • Meaning of Environment and Development Functions;
  • Definition of Sustainable Development;
  • Types of Pollution :Air pollution, Water pollution, Noise pollution, Thermalpollution, Land pollution, Marine Pollution, Radioactiveelement; Land Degradation;
  • Soil Degradation;
  • Solid WasteManagement; E-waste ;
  • Linkages of Environment withEconomy ;
  • Significance to Environmental Valuation :Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Hedonic PricingMethod, Travel cost Method, Production FunctionApproach, Cost-Benefit Analysis; Market Goods;
  • Non-market Goods; Forest Resources :Direct use value : TimberHarvesting, Bird Watching and Hiking, Non-use value :Soil Stabilization, Climate Stabilization, Ground WaterStabilization;
  • Water Resource Management: Kudimaramathumurai, Rain water harvesting, Recycling ofwaste water, Sprinkler Irrigation, Drip Irrigation, Groundwater recharge Shaft, Watershed management- CheckDams Percolation ponds; Integrated Farming System;
  • Environmental awareness Programmes; Global Warming and Climate Change Challenges; Green initiatives in TamilNadu; Preservation of Biodiversity
Statistical techniques in economiesBasic Statistical Tools for Economic Analysis : Mean,Median and Mode, Mean deviation, Quartile deviation,Standard deviation and Harmonic deviation , Co-variance ,Simple correlation and Simple regression, RankCorrelation, Karl Pearson co-efficient of correlation,Laspeyres, Paasche and Fisher’s Indices; Introduction toProbability : Binomial and Poisson Distribution
Basic econometricsMeaning, Definitions and Objectives of Econometrics;Scope of Econometrics; Single Equation Regression Model :Nature of Regression Analysis, Two variable RegressionAnalysis : Some basic ideas, Ordinary Least SquareEstimation (OLSE), Non-linear Regression, Panel dataAnalysis, Time-Series data Analysis, Graphical Method

Class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC Syllabus 2022 – History

History is a theory subject. In history, students need to learn all the important dates and events related to India and the World. In this subject, students will learn about modern India, about wars that happened in India, and many more. It is very important for students to learn each and every topic in the Tamil Nadu HSC syllabus 2022.

History of Modern IndiaIndia under East India Company’s Rule, Education under the Company’s rule, British rule in Tamilnadu, The Great Revolt of 1857, Changes in Indian administration after 1858, India’s Freedom Movement, Role of Tamilnadu in India’s Freedom Movement, India after independence – Social, Economic, Scientific and Technological Progress.
Modern world historyRenaissance, the American war of independence, French Revolution, Industrial, and Agricultural Revolutions, Spread of Colonialism, Russian Revolution, Rise of Fascism and Nazism, Second World War, Growth of Asian Nations China and Japan after the Second World War, UNO, Cold War.

Tamil Nadu Class 12th Exam Pattern 2022

Students must be aware of the Tamil Nadu class 12th exam pattern. It is very important for students to know the weightage of the questions with the class 12th Tamil Nadu HSCsyllabus 2022. Students should also know the question pattern. To know the question pattern students must go through the previous year’s question papers. 

Part-I Language3 HoursTamil, Hindi, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, Urdu, Sanskrit, Arabic, French, and German.
Part -II English3 HoursEnglish
Part- III any 4 subjects3 HoursAny 4 subjects from general stream papers or vocational stream papers

How to Download Tamil Nadu Class 12th Syllabus 2022

Here are easy steps to download the Tamil Nadu class 12th syllabus 2022 from the official website of Tamil Nadu. 

  1. To download the class 12th Tamil Nadu HSC syllabus 2022, login to official website ie.,
  2. Select the “12th Books” to download the TN class 12th syllabus 2022.
  3. A new window will appear on the screen. Select the subject and click on the download button.
  4. Students can download and save the syllabus.

Tamil Nadu Class 12th Exam 2022- Preparation Tips

Here are some of the important tips for students to prepare for the Tamil Nadu class 12th exam 2022. Students can follow these tips to achieve good marks in their TN HSC class 12th exam 2022. The minimum passing marks for every subject is 33 percent. If any student fails to achieve the minimum passing marks then they have to re-appear for the exam. 

  1. Students are advised to make a plan of their per day study hour and what all topics to be covered in a day.
  2. Students are advised to go through each and every topic of the TN class 12th syllabus 2022. Each and every topic in the syllabus is mandatory to study.
  3. Students are advised to make notes and try to finish their syllabus before time.
  4. Students should try to do the maximum practice.


Q1. From where students can download the Tamil Nadu class 12th syllabus 2022?

Ans: Students can download the Tamil Nadu class 12th syllabus 2022 from this page only.

Q2. What are the important topics for TN HSC class 12th exam 2022?

Ans: Every topic which is mentioned in the Tamil Nadu class 12th syllabus 2022 is mandatory for the exam.

Q3. What are the minimum passing marks for the TN class 12th exam 2022?

Ans: Minimum passing marks for TN class 12th exam 2022 is 33 per cent.